Paper Notes on “Tango: Distributed Data Structures over a Shared Log” [SOSP’13]

The following is a paper notes article on “Tango: Distributed Data Structures over a Shared Log” by Balakrishnan et al. from SOSP 2013. The article focus on the main body of the paper and I will cover Tango’s streaming and transaction support in a separate article, sometime in the future.

I have covered this paper before covering its companion paper “CORFU: A Shared Log Design for Flash Clusters” also by Balakrishnan et al. from NSDI 2012. I expect its paper notes article will answer many of the open questions in this article.

Summary

Tango is system for replicating a data structure to provide linearizable semantics and fault tolerance. Tango is framed as system for application metadata, whose requirement include a need for fault tolerance, high availability, fairly strong consistency/ordering requirements.

[quick note on terminology: unlike the usual terminology to describe systems like Raft and VRR, Tango uses the term “client” to refer to what similar systems call a server and “external client” to what similar systems call a client. We shall use the same terminology as Tango. ]

The basics

At its heart, Tango, takes SMR and separates the replication of the log from the hosts running the application. In traditional SMR, each host runs the application itself (an in-memory deterministic state machine) and stores a local copy of the log. With the help of a consensus protocol, the local copy of the log kept upto date and clients are provided with linearizable semantics. In Tango, only the application runs on these host. The log is instead distributed (using chain replication) across an a set of storage nodes (e.g. an SSD cluster). Tango clients do not communicate directly with message passing (as is the case of SMR), instead they interact via the shared log.

SMR is often used with leader driven consensus, this means that only the leader may commit an operation to replicated log and if the leader was to fail the system is unavailable to clients until a new leader is chosen. In contrast, Tango’s approach allows clients to directly replicate commands to the log. The leader is replaced by a dedicated sequencer and the sequencer state is soft so systems can continue to operate (at higher latency) if the sequencer was to fail.

Tango uses a stream abstraction to shard operations by the data structure on which they operate. This is used to clients to efficiently “ignore” operations which do not apply their data structures.

Shared log (aka Corfu)

The shared log (aka Corfu) is composed of clusters of storage nodes. Within each cluster, each storage node is a replica and operates on a read many/write once basis. Global address x maps to cluster (x mod n) and local address (x div n), where n is the number of clusters. Clients read and write to clusters using chain replication, this is also how failures are handled.

The sequencer stores the global address of the log tail. If this fails, it can reconstructed by querying storage nodes for local address of their log tail. The paper also mentions that each cluster also has its own dedicated sequencer, I could not understand when this is used.

Multiple clients writing to one address is resolved safely and Corfu exposes an operation for filling in unused addresses

Application interface

In many classic protocols, the external client must locate a master/coordinator to handle the request on their behalf. In Tango (like some other leaderless systems like EPaxos) any external client can communication with any client. Often SMR uses master leases or a similar mechanism to handle read requests without fully replicating them (unlike write requests) or having to pass them to the master. Corfu supports a check operation so Tango can check (and update if necessary) the local view before applying the update. Transactions are supported with speculation, object version numbers and a commit/abort stage before an up call to application is made

The API for interfacing with Tango seems similar to that of SMR. An application must provide a callback to apply a operation and has access to method to add read or write operations. An application may provide a checkpointing mechanism and may call discard on any log prefix.

Related systems

Alternatives to Tango are systems such as Zookeeper, Raft and Chubby. In the introduction, the authors highlight that such system are not sufficient since they only support specific data structures and/or do not support operations over multiple data structures. Whilst I support this idea, I would argue that in at least some existing systems, operations over multiple data structure can be supported by considering the multiple data structures as one. This allows operations over multiple data structure but comes at a high cost of adding a total ordering between operations when only a small partial ordering is required. Since Tango support streaming, it already has access to a partial ordering on operations instead of just using a total ordering. P-SMR by Parisa Marandi demonstrates the efficiently improvements possible by utilizing this information. Another argument given in the paper is that adopting SMR after the development of an application “often requires a drastic rewrite of the code”.

Evaluation

The experimental evaluation of Tango focuses on measuring throughput and/or latency whilst varying the number of clients and ratio of write to read requests. I would be interested to see some results on the recovery time for various patterns of storage node or sequencer failures. The initial evaluation considers three scenarios: (a) 18 storage nodes and 1 client, (b) 18 storage nodes and 2 clients, (c) 2 or 18 storage nodes and 1 to 18 clients. Generally speaking, the results are very much as you might expect: increasing request load increases request latency, writes place a much high burden on the system than reads and read only clients scale linearly until storage nodes are saturated.

The paper does not mention any formal proof of correctness (only that the sequencer is not required for correctness). Log compaction is supported with the forget call and checkpointing. Dynamic membership support for clients is trivial due to the design of Tango but I would be interested how Corfu and its variant of chain replication handles storage node failures.

It is not fair to directly compare Tango to systems using SMR with a majority quorum consensus algorithm (such as Raft). Tango’s scalability comes (in part) from the sharding of the replication log into clusters. This technique can be applied to SMR (see S-SMR) too. It would be interesting to see how Tango performs with the storage node, application node and sequencer co-located on same the host. However (particularly with current trend towards containers, docker and unikernels) separating systems like Tango into function specific instances/hosts has some significant benefits such as decoupling the number of storage and application hosts or fine gained provisioning for the sequencer compared to the storage/application hosts.

Conclusion

Each new paper that presents a high availability, fault-tolerance systems seems to build upon many of the old concepts (such as Paxos, SMR and timeouts for failure detection), in combination with a few novel ideas. In this case, Tango builds upon chain replication, for replicating log entries and the typical API for SMR. This is first time I have seen a soft state sequencer used in such as system as well as the divide between the storage nodes and application nodes. Overall, I really like this paper and its nice to see some novelty in a space crowded with variants of Paxos + SMR.

Azure Latency Pilot Study: Part 4 – Variation in results with time

So far in this study, we have only considered the aggregated measurements and how they vary depending on the VMs used. In this post, we will considered how the RTT measurements may have changed over time.

The following 5 plots show the RTT as observed by each machine over time. The y axis stops as 12 ms to aid visibility of the majority of results. Using the CDF of all results from the second part in this series, we can see that these figures thus include around 85% of all data points.

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The most striking aspect of these figures is the 2 hour gap in the results. The source of this failure is still unknown. Azure reported no machine or network failures during this time and the system removed and continued to take measurements without any manual intervention. Otherwise, between 2 and 5 ms the RTT measurements appear to be fairly randomly distributed, although as we saw last time their distribution approximates normal (as we would expect).

Overall, I am not particularly happy with the results collected so far and hope the next round of tests will generate better results. Tomorrow, we will compare how these results differ from other studies.

Azure Latency Pilot Study: Part 3 – Machine specific results

In this post we will be looking at the results for the Azure latency Pilot study described last week. Yesterday, we started by looking at the aggregated results and found that the measured RTT was larger then expected. Today, we will look at how the results vary depending on which VMs the measurements where taken between. It may be the case that we can infer something about topology between VMs, for example whether VM’s are in the same physical host and the same rack.

The table below shows the RTT between each pair of VMs. The first server in the pair, labelled src is the one which initialised the ping. The table includes each machine pinging itself for comparison.

src dst mean s.d min 25th 50th 75th max
1 1 51.0 65.1 1.7 4.3 65.25 71.6 1004.0
1 2 12.1 89.7 1.7 2.9 3.6 4.3 1004.7
1 3 9.5 66.5 1.6 3.4 4.1 4.8 1004.7
1 4 7.3 52.3 1.3 3.0 3.5 4.0 1004.1
1 5 11.8 84.9 1.6 3.0 3.6 4.4 1242.2
2 1 6.2 12.7 1.6 3.0 3.7 4.425 88.4
2 2 16.7 65.8 1.1 3.0 3.7 4.6 1002.9
2 3 15.0 95.6 1.4 3.0 3.7 4.4 1004.9
2 4 9.6 62.0 1.4 2.9 3.5 4.3 1003.6
2 5 15.3 80.0 1.3 2.9 3.5 4.3 1002.5
3 1 48.5 44.9 2.0 4.5 64.2 70.6 754.9
3 2 7.0 48.9 1.4 2.9 3.6 4.4 1005.0
3 3 3.9 4.2 1.6 3.1 3.8 4.6 124.9
3 4 5.8 32.0 1.3 2.9 3.4 4.0 628.6
3 5 6.7 52.5 1.5 2.9 3.8 4.4 1229.3
4 1 48.8 48.3 1.9 4.7 62.1 67.3 1003.0
4 2 7.7 59.5 1.3 2.8 3.6 4.4 1003.8
4 3 9.0 60.1 1.6 3.3 4.1 4.8 1004.0
4 4 5.2 29.3 1.2 2.7 3.3 3.8 754.6
4 5 15.6 104.7 1.5 2.8 3.6 4.3 1035.0
5 1 50.9 69.8 2.0 4.5 63.8 69.6 1005.3
5 2 9.4 70.9 1.3 2.9 3.7 4.3 1003.8
5 3 8.6 57.6 2.0 3.3 4.1 4.8 1003.7
5 4 6.5 47.7 1.3 2.7 3.4 4.0 1003.0
5 5 6.8 49.2 1.2 2.5 3.2 4.1 1023.0

All VMs other than VM 2 have high latency to VM 1. In fact, we see an average 65 ms RTT from VM 1 to itself. This warrants further investigation into how hping3 is measuring latency. Removing VM 1 from the equation, we observe reasonable uniformity in the RRTs between VMs 2 to 5. Between these the min, 25th, 50th and 75th percentile are all similar and the maximum varies highly, which is to be expected.

I would like to take a close look at how the distribution of RTT measurements varies between VMs 2 to 5. The table below shows the RTT between each pair of VMs between 2 to 5, at various percentile points.

src dst 80th 90th 95th 98th 99th
2 2 5.1 41.8 47.2 124.6 150.7
2 3 4.6 5.0 5.5 34.5 429.5
2 4 4.5 4.9 5.5 47.4 78.5
2 5 4.5 5.4 60.4 91.8 207.8
3 2 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.5 8.9
3 3 4.7 5.0 5.1 5.4 5.8
3 4 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.2 6.1
3 5 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.9 6.6
4 2 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.8
4 3 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.7 6.4
4 4 4.0 4.3 4.7 5.1 5.8
4 5 4.5 4.8 5.2 6.1 762.9
5 2 4.5 4.8 4.9 5.1 6.1
5 3 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.6 6.8
5 4 4.1 4.5 4.9 5.3 6.3
5 5 4.3 4.6 4.8 5.8 7.2

Yesterday, we saw that the 90th percentile for dataset as a whole was 61.4 ms, this is not representative of the RTT between VMs 2-5. We can see this information more clearly using the following 5 CDF, each graph representing the round trip time from each machine to each of the others (and itself).

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Machine 1 is a clear outlier from the perspective for machines 1, 3, 4 and 5. The observed RTT doesn’t seems to be symmetric. Again this asymmetry warrants further investigation. The stepping in the CDFs is because the RTT is recorded to the nearest 1 decimal place.

Next time, we will look at how the observed RTT varies with time.

Azure Latency Pilot Study: Part 2 – Aggregated results

This is post we will be looking at the results for the Azure latency Pilot study described last week. We will starting by looking at the aggregate results, disregarding the time a measurement was taken and which machines the measurement was taken between.

The 22332 data points have been processed in Python3, in particular using the matplotlib and numpy libraries. The scripts are available in azure-measurements repository.
They currently only use the average round trip time, as reported by hping3, average over 10 pings.

property RTT (ms)
min 1.1
max 1242.2
mean 15.9
std 66.5

The results in the table above are much larger than I expected. Given the large standard deviation and very large maximum value, it is likely that a few large measures have skewed the results. Let’s take a look at the cumulative distribution function (CDF) and percentile points to see if this is the case.

percentile RTT (ms)
25th 3.0
50th 3.8
75th 4.7
90th 61.4
95th 69.7
99th 87.3

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As expect, some large measurements have skewed the results. However, the proportion of measurement which are considered large is much greater then I expected. This warrants further investigation.

Before that, lets take a closer look at how the majority of value are distributed. Due to the central limit theorem and the sufficiently large sample size, we would expect to see a normal distribution. In simulators such as Raft Refloated, we simulate latency as normally distributed with given parameters, discarding values below a threshold value. We can take a closer look at the probability density function (PDF) and see if this is a reasonable approximation.

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The green bars represent the probability of each RTT. We see an approximate normal distribution, although it is clear that this distribution doesn’t have the same parameters as the data set as a whole. The red lines shows a normal distributed with mean 3.6 and standard deviation of 1. This red line appears to be a reasonable approximation and could be used in simulation.

Next post, we will looks at how the measured RTT differs depending which of the 5 machines the measurement was taken between.

Azure Latency Pilot Study: Part 1 – Experimental Setup

This post, the first in a short series, discusses a simple overnight pilot study of measuring network characteristics on Microsoft Azure. This study was to be the first of many. Its purpose was to test the tools and gave some initial measurements, thus informing the the design of more substantial measurement studies in the future.

Motivation

Ultimately, I would like to answer the following questions about today’s cloud offerings:
1. How often do VMs fail in practice? What is the typical downtime? And to what extent are these failures correlated with each other? How does the failure rate vary with different price tiers and different cloud providers? For example, comparing normal instances to low cost instances like Amazon EC2 Spot instances or Google Clouds Preemptible Instances
2. How often do network partitions occur? What types of partitions do we see in practice? Do they isolate individual nodes or divide a cluster into a few disconnected groups? Do partial partitions, which we believe can cause issues for protocols such as Raft, occur in practice?
3. What are the latency characters between VMs? How about between between different datacenters by the same provider or by different providers?
4. How do today’s open source fault-tolerant data stores such as LogCabin or CorfuDB perform in practice? Is this sufficient to meet application demands? How quickly can such system heal after failures?
5. How can use the above to configure systems such as Raft Refloated or Coracle to simulate real work deployments of fault tolerance applications?

Experimental Setup

The experiment was run across virtual machines in the Azure. Azure is Microsoft’s cloud offering and a competitor to services such as Google Cloud and Amazon EC2. Azure was chosen simple over the competition simply because we have access to free credits. This was the first time I had used it (except from hosting the Coracle SIGCOMM demo) and it was relatively straight forward to perform simple operations, though not without its difficulties. For the management of the virtual machines, I mostly used Azure ASM CLI, a command line utility for managing VMs, its written in JS and is open source. This first test used 5 ‘small’ machines in North Europe, running overnight.

The machine themselves where simple Ubuntu 14.03 instance (and yes, Azure does have linux VM’s too). One machine was manually set-up, captured and cloned. Setup involved adding the public key of the data collection server, cloning measurement scripts and running them as a service, installing a few dependencies and running sudo waagent -deprovision before capturing the VM image.

Measurements

The measurement script simply TCP pings (sends SYN and waits for response) all the other machines in the test set every 20 sec and writes the results with test time to disk. It is worth noting that Azure drops ICMP traffic and whilst they acknowledge that is case of external traffic, many people (myself included) could not get internal ICMP traffic through either. The tool used was hping3, and it reported min, max and average round trip from a 10 successive pings.

The measurement server waited until after the end of the measurement study to collect data, to avoid interfering with the measurement. The collection script simply pulls the data from the measurement servers using scp (and the asymmetric keys established earlier). The other management jobs such as cleaning the data files or updating measurement scripts was done using parallel ssh.

Results

The experiment was ran between 19:00 and 08:50:00, across 5 virtual machines. In total, 22332 measurements were involved in the analysis, ranging from 1.1 ms to 1242 ms. The raw data is available online, as are all the scripts used.

Tomorrow, we will look at some analysis of these results.

Adding machines can decrease availability of a distributed system

TL;DR: Run distributed systems using majority quorum on an odd number of machines.

Paxos, Raft, Viewstamped Replication and many other consensus algorithms operate on majority quorums. A majority quorum is any subset of nodes containing at least a strict majority of nodes. These algorithms all require a majority quorum to agree to a value before its considered to be committed. This ensures that any agreement will be aware of all past agreements, as there will always be in intersection of at least one mode between any two majority quorums.

It is a prerequisite that at least a strict majority of nodes are up for the system using these consensus protocols to be operational. From this, we can establish an upper bound on the uptime of any system using majority quorum consensus. For this calculation, we assume node failures are independent. Whilst this is a fair assumption, it is of course not the case in practice.

We can calculate the probability that a strict majority of node are up as follows:

majority_bound_fig2

p is the probably that a node is live, n is number of nodes and underline means floor.

This equation is also the CDF of the Binomial distribution. It works by summing up the probability what no nodes are down, only one node is down, two nodes are down etc.. until you reach the case where the largest possible minority of nodes are down.

The following graph shows the relationship between node uptime p and majority quorum uptime (each line represent the number of nodes from 1 to 8):

majority_bound_fig1

A system with two nodes is more likely to fail than a system with one. It’s easy to see why this is. If either node in a system of two machines fails then the system is down (as its unable to get a strict majority). Since there are two node instead of one, a failure is likely to occur. In other words, the probably of a system of one node having a majority is p, whilst for a system of two nodes its p^2.

If node uptime is less than half, your best off with only one node. In practice, your best off with not using majority quorum consensus.

Adding a node to an odd set of nodes doesn’t improve uptime. Adding this extra node doesn’t increase the number of failures that can we handled, e.g. 5 nodes can handle upto two failures and 6 nodes can also only handle upto two failures. The summation above has no extra terms in this case but the existing terms are smaller as p is raised to a higher power.

This approach is of course very limited. We are not accounting for how extra nodes aid in the handling of read-only commands, the duration and pattern of failures and that machine failures are not independent.

I assume this is well known result in the theory of distributed system but I’ve not come across it before. If anyone has seen it before, I can you send me a pointer to the work.

Chronicle of Coracle: Parsing Protocol Specific Parameters

This is the first post in the “Chronicle of Coracle” series to document daily life using OCaml for systems programming.

Today, I’ll be adding protocol specific parameters to Coracle, this mostly involves working with the Yojson and Cmdliner libraries. Once completed, Coracle will be able to accept JSON files like:

{"nodes": 50,"loss": 0.0, "termination":1000, "consensus": {"protocol":"raft","timeout":300}}

Stage 1 – Protocol selection

The value associated with “protocol” key determines how which consensus protocol is ran by the simulator. Though this value seems like an unusual starting place, the simulator is a functor over the specific consensus implementation, thus we much choose our consensus implementation first before anything else. We extract the protocol name as follows:

let get_protocol filename = try (
  Safe.from_file filename
  |> function `Assoc config -> config
  |> List.assoc "consensus"
  |> function `Assoc proto -> proto
  |> List.assoc "protocol" 
  |> function `String str -> str
  |> function "raft" -> `Raft | "vrr" -> `VRR
  ) with _ -> raise JSON_parsing_failure

This approach gets the job done but could be improved using some kinda option/error monad instead of exceptions and providing more detailed information to the user on why the JSON parsing failed. We added various other JSON parsing functions, all of follow a similar pattern one above. We needed to do a bit more work to get these to type correctly, as described in Stage 3.

Stage 2 – The dummy module

Based on the protocol given in the JSON configuration file, we apply a different consensus module to the simulation functor. At the moment we only have support for the Raft protocol, so here is the type sig for consensus modules and a new dummy consensus module we can use in testing.

module type CONSENSUS = sig
  
type state
type config
val parse_config: json -> config
val init: id list -> config -> state
val add_peers: id list -> state -> state
val state_to_string: state -> string 

type msg
val msg_serialize: msg -> string
val msg_deserialize: string -> msg
val msg_to_string: msg -> string
val eval: msg input -> state -> state option * msg output list  

end 

And the dummy module:

open Common
open Io
open Yojson.Safe

type state = {
  peers: id list;
  counter: int;
  say_hello_to: int;
}

type config = int
let parse_config json = 
  function `Assoc config -> config
  |> List.assoc "id"
  |> function `Int i -> i

let init peers id = {
  peers; counter=0; say_hello_to=id}
let add_peers new_peers s = 
  {s with peers=s.peers@new_peers}
let state_to_string s = string_of_int s.counter

type msg = Hello | HelloBack
let msg_to_string = function
  | Hello -> "hello"
  | HelloBack -> "hello back"

let msg_serialize = msg_to_string

let msg_deserialize = function
  | "hello" -> Hello
  | "hello back" -> HelloBack

let eval event state =
  match event with
  | PacketArrival (id,Hello) -> 
(None, [PacketDispatch (id, HelloBack)])
  | PacketArrival (_,HelloBack) -> 
(Some {state with counter=state.counter +1}, [])
  | Startup _ -> 
(None, [PacketDispatch (state.say_hello_to, Hello)])

This was just a quick hack to test that the simulator will generalise over consensus implementations.

Stage 3 – Using mli files to generalise polymorphic variants

Yojson uses polymorphic variants for describing the structure of JSON files. Polymorphic variants (the ones which start with the backtick) can be declared on the fly and don’t need type definitions beforehand. Initially, we got type errors like this for many of our JSON parsing functions:

Error: Signature mismatch:
       ...
       Values do not match:
         val parse_config :
           [< `Assoc of (string * [> `Int of int ]) list ] -> config
       is not included in
         val parse_config : Yojson.Safe.json -> config

These issues where quickly address by adding mli files or :json type annotations

 

Stage 4 – Knowing when to give up

The simulation command line interface (without using config files) had become exponentially more complex, both in terms of implementation and usage. As of this PR, we on longer support command line simulation without the use of a config file. In hindsight, its unlikely that many would use this interface due to the unmanageable number of parameters (around 2 dozen for ocaml-raft)

Stage 5 – Protocol Selector

Now that we are able to parse the JSON config files and we have multiple protocols to choice between, we can write our protocol selector:

let protocol_selector config_file trace output_file no_sanity =
  match Json_handler.get_protocol config_file with
  | `Raft -> 
    let module R = Simulator.Simulate(Raft) in 
    R.start config_file trace output_file no_sanity
  | `Dummy -> 
    let module R = Simulator.Simulate(Dummy) in 
    R.start config_file trace output_file no_sanity

Since we only have two protocols to choose between, I’ve opted to duplicate the R.start line instead of using first class modules (fcm) as fcm requires packing and unpacking. Interestingly, I can’t directly call start from Simulator.Simulate(Raft), you need to assign it to an intermediate module in between. I’m not sure why this is case.

Conclusion

You can now pass protocol specific parameter to Coracle using JSON configuration files. This will be live on the demo server by tonight. Tomorrow, we will look at adding clients to the simulator.

#C3S2015 Trip Report – Day 1

Good Morning everyone!

I am here in Estonia with Zafar, Steffen and Jon at the First Cyber Security Summer School. It’s 8am and we have a packed schedule ahead of us today.

Good morning from a forest in Estonia

A photo posted by heidi (@heidiann360) on

Opening Remarks

Session 1

Our first session is lead by Steven M. Bellovin (Columbia University).

Session 2

Our second session is lead by Jaan Priisalu (Senior Fellow at CCDCOE), with the help of Andres Kütt, Heiko Vainsalu, Mark Erlich (Estonian Information System Authority) and Kristjan Vassil (University of Tartu)

Panel Discussion

The panel discuss is lead by Lauri Almann (BHC Laboratory) and includes Parag Pruthi, Jon Crowcroft, Konstantina Papagiannaki, Jaan Priisalu, Andres Kütt.

#C3S2015 Trip Report – Day 0

Hello from a lovely little spa hotel in a forest in Estonia.

After an excellent dinner and many coffees, our first session started at 9pm (yes! they are working us hard already). We received a warm welcome from Olaf Meaneel (TUT) to the first ever cyber security summer school (C3S2015). Dr Parag Pruthi kicked off proceedings with his talk titled “Advancing big data analytics – cyber defence solutions”.

Parag asked “When was the first cyber war?” The answer: in 1982, during the cold war, the CIA attacked the flow control software for soviet serbian gas pipeline. Our networks are even more fragile. Example of Iran hijacking US drone and some excellent clips from the IT crowd. Breaching systems is fast, discovery is slow and recovery is very slow. We always blame ‘dave’, we aren’t good at protecting against human error. Intrusion detection systems are not reliable, 1% false positive rate gives a trust levels of .19%.

We researchers are disconnected from the real world, we make simplifying assumptions, design a solution and test in simulation against the assumptions. Parag motivates engineering from real world network. He details the challenges in collecting petabytes of data, storage, compression, retrieval, processing and evaluating.

Parag key message was that big data provides us with near perfect information for intrusion detection.

Q: Is you approach limited in time, we must collect data and anaylsis before we can react?
A: Correct, we still have real people watching data visualisation, like a security guard watch CCTV, but they are not an order of magnitude faster then they where before.